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Men Also Contract HPV. So Why Aren’t They Tested Like Women Are?

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Most sexually active women in the modern era know about human papillomavirus. Some were offered the HPV vaccine in their early teenage years and saw the ads all over television about reducing the risk of cervical cancer.

But women aren’t the only ones who contract HPV. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 79 million American women and men are currently infected with HPV. And while awareness about how men can contract and spread the virus is increasing, there’s still a gap between women and men when it comes to prevention and treatment.

Simply put: Men aren’t routinely tested like women are. In fact, there’s currently no approved test for HPV in men.

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“Men can be tested during an anal pap smear if they request that the tests include one for HPV,” said Sunny Rodgers, a sex educator and ambassador for the American Sexual Health Association. “However, an anal pap smear is not usually included in male exams unless the individual has tested positive for HIV.”

Most people with HPV have no symptoms, so they wouldn’t necessarily know to request testing for the virus. If they do develop symptoms, the most common is genital warts in both men and women.

“These warts usually appear near the sex organs … and can be a single bump or a group of bumps close together,” Rodgers said. “They can have different shapes ― some are raised, others flat, and in groups, they can look like the head of a cauliflower. They can be flesh-tone, white, pink and red in color.”

Bumps may also itch ― and they can be treated, said Carlos Malvestutto, an infectious disease expert with The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. “There are topical antiviral medications to treat genital warts,” he explained. “Larger or more numerous genital warts can be treated with cryoablation, laser ablation, electrocautery or surgery.”

That said, most people have few or no symptoms of HPV, and the immune system will clear the virus on its own in the vast majority of cases. High-risk HPV strains that are never cleared from body are usually the ones docs are most concerned about because they’re linked to an increased risk of cancer; specifically, HPV16 and HPV18 may lead to cervical, anal, oropharyngeal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancers.

Why Men Aren’t Tested, Even Though HPV Affects Them

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So, if men and women both get HPV that can cause disease, why aren’t men also regularly tested at a doctor’s appointment? It has to do with whether discovering HPV can lead to any form of prevention.

Women are tested for HPV as part of their pap smears, which they typically get once every three years from ages 21 to 65, unless their doctors decide more frequent testing should occur. This is specifically to look for abnormal cervical cells.

“The American Cancer Society has found that cervical cancer can be prevented. Therefore, HPV is tested for during female pap smears because HPV can lead to cervical cancer,” Rodgers said. “There is a direct correlation between testing and prevention. But thus far, there is very little research showing male anal HPV testing as a certain preventive measure for cancer.”

The Food and Drug Administration approved HPV testing as a primary screening for cervical cancer in 2014. There is ongoing research being conducted on an HPV test for men, but so far the FDA hasn’t approved one. According to a study published in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, testing a man’s mouth or throat was not an effective way to discover HPV.

Discovering a test for men is vital for the culture that surrounds HPV as well, Rogers said. Since only women can currently be tested, it reinforces the notion that HPV is a woman’s sexually transmitted infection. However, the CDC reports that approximately 25% of men in the U.S. have high-risk HPV, compared to only 20% of women.

“The stigma associated with women having to be the primary individuals tested for HPV is so evident that there are has been research documenting it,” Rodgers said. “According to the BMJ, raising public awareness of the sexually transmitted nature of HPV can potentially increase women’s feelings of stigma, shame and anxiety ― but their research also found that when women learned HPV was common, it helped reduce these feelings by ‘normalizing’ the infection.”

How To Prevent HPV

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In the absence of a test that can screen for HPV, prevention mechanisms are still powerful.

The majority of people contract HPV when they become sexually active, according to the CDC. Experts stress that the vaccine is something everyone should ask their doctor about.

Gardasil prevents nine different strains of HPV, including two low-risk strains that cause genital warts and seven high-risk strains that are linked to cancer. While it’s typically given to boys and girls when they’re 11 or 12, it’s often recommended for ages up to 26 ― and perhaps even later than that.

“Prior to October 2018, Gardasil was used to vaccinate males and females from ages nine to 26 only,” Rodgers said. “But on that date, the FDA approved its use for people aged 27 to 45.”

The approval was based on a long-term study of 3,200 women in this older age group, in which the vaccine was 88% effective in preventing infection and cancer. Men in the older age category should see improved prevention as well, according to the FDA.

“Even for someone who has a history of genital warts or has been found to have HPV-associated lesions, there is still benefit to taking the vaccine because it will protect them from acquiring any of the other high-risk genotypes that they could become exposed to,” Malvestutto said.

The importance of the vaccine can’t be understated, Malvestutto added. “Widespread adoption of this vaccine is leading to a reduction in incidence of cervical cancer in several countries around the world,” he said. “In Australia, it is estimated that cervical cancer may be eliminated by 2028 due to the widespread adoption of the HPV vaccine.”

Aside from the vaccine, you should also reduce your risk of contracting HPV by practicing safe sex, though complete prevention isn’t always possible.

“At some point in their lives, most people will have the HPV virus,” Rodgers said. “There is only one way to not contract the HPV virus, and that’s totally avoiding any sexual contact.”

Condoms can offer some protection from HPV infection, though, and shouldn’t be discounted as a way to prevent the virus. “The HPV virus may be on skin that isn’t covered by the condom, but polyurethane condoms are made from a special type of plastic that helps prevent pregnancy and STI infection,” Rodgers said. “They are also good alternatives for anyone allergic to latex.”

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Ancient Canals, Futuristic Skylines, and Dumplings: Why Suzhou, the ‘Venice of China,’ Belongs on Your Bucket List

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In travel circles, it seems every continent is quick to claim its own “Paris.” Search for “Paris of the East” and you’ll find cultural hubs like Beirut, Bucharest, Hanoi, Jaipur. “Paris of the North” conjures Belfast, Edinburgh, Salzburg. Replacing Paris with “Rome” or “Athens” surfaces even more cities that seem to be experiencing an identity crisis. But one “Paris of the East” stands out for also laying claim to a certain Chinese proverb: “In heaven there is paradise, on Earth there is Suzhou.”

I’ve been to Paris, Rome, and Athens, and for me none of them are heaven. But Suzhou comes close thanks to its well-preserved ancient history, hyper-modern skyline, and some very historically significant dumplings.

A city of 13 million people, Suzhou is mainly known for its pristine UNESCO-designated gardens dating back to the 11th century and its ancient waterways spidering off of the world’s largest manmade canal, China’s Grand Canal. Suzhou’s other signatures include a delicate cuisine of seafood and widely beloved soup dumplings, a futuristic industrial district funded by Singapore, a crooked hilltop pagoda known as the “Leaning Tower of China,” and its long-held status as the largest silk producer in the world. All just an hour from bustling Shanghai.
If America’s idea of romance is Paris or Venice, then China’s is Suzhou. The 2,500-year-old city was the cultural epicenter and largest non-capital city of China’s Ming (1300s to 1600s) and Qing (1600s to 1900s) dynasties. Everywhere you look today, relics of the past commingle with the present: the 1,000-year-old water towns’ ancient canals; the skyscraping Suzhou Industrial Park district’s waterfront fountain shows; a new, sprawling shopping mall that’s one of the world’s largest. Frozen in time and simultaneously thrust into a smartphone-based future of its own making (read: DiDi in place of Uber, WeChat in place of Facebook, Instagram, and any mobile payment app, in one), Suzhou feels other-worldly.
Most people go to China for its megacities and its Great Wall, but I went for water towns and dumplings. And I was pleasantly surprised to find that by arriving through Shanghai and taking advantage of the region’s bullet trains I’d get to experience much more in the spirit of both history and modernity: Shanghai’s glittering skyline, the former Chinese capital of Nanjing for Ming tombs and other dynastic relics, and the grand finale that is Suzhou.

It’s not just its status as a “Venice,” or even that it’s home to a landmark nicknamed the “Leaning Tower of China” (a la Pisa) that makes Suzhou home to incredible “pasta.” The same way that some seek out Italy for spaghetti, more travelers should be heading to Suzhou for noodles and dumplings. If you don’t believe me, take it from Marco Polo: The famed explorer is said to have introduced pasta—essentially noodles and the dough used to make dumplings—to Italy after a 13th-century trip to this area, the Jiangsu province of China. And he had lots to say about Suzhou (more on that below).

Shanghai and Suzhou’s dumplings are still worth traveling for. The types are endless. Wonton soup in a light seafood broth is a Suzhou staple, while the heartier pork-based soup dumplings (xialong bao) that explode in your mouth and have become famous the world over originated in nearby Shanghai, and thus are popular throughout Jiangsu province. Steamed vegetable buns are commonly eaten for breakfast—but pan-fried varieties or smaller shumai are popular, too, simply labeled “dim sum.”

If you want to elevate your dumpling game then seek out sheng xian bao, or pan-fried pork buns—a combination of soup dumpling and bao that are pan fried for extra decadence.


Dumplings are far from the only thing in Jiangsu province that impressed Marco Polo, however. “In this city there are 6,000 bridges, all of stone, and so lofty that two ships together could pass underneath them,” Polo wrote of Suzhou. “It contains merchants of great wealth and an incalculable number of people. Indeed, if the men of this city and of the rest of the country had the spirit of soldiers, they would conquer the world; but they are not soldiers at all, only accomplished traders and most skilled craftsmen.”

Everywhere you go in Suzhou are humble handmade wonders, from animal-shaped dumplings to embroidered silk, stone bridges, and cultivated gardens. Start at 1,200-year-old Shangtang Street to peruse the old town’s canals by boat before taking to the artisan stalls of dumpling baskets and rows of restaurants serving piping-hot seafood delicacies. Eat at famed Song He Lou and order the local special of sweet-and-sour Mandarin fish, served whole yet boneless and deep-fried to the point of looking like a Bloomin’ Onion slathered in orange sauce.

Pingjiang Road is a slightly more modern shopping and arts districts (at just 800 years old) where old meets new: sample tea and flower wines in trendy shops, or head to a traditional Kun Opera performance at the historic Fuxi Tea House to experience the same traditional singing and costumes that developed here during the Ming Dynasty.
Suzhou’s classical gardens date back to the 11th century and are meticulously maintained UNESCO-designated wonders. Classical Chinese gardens are an art form that has been cultivated over centuries and combines four elements: architecture, stone, water, and plants. Today these gardens are best visited early to avoid the crowds, and some are better known for certain elements over others: The Humble Administrator’s Garden is the most famous for its sheer size, while Lion Grove Garden is known for its maze-like rock formations, Cangland Pavilion is Suzhou’s oldest, and Master of the Nets is a smaller option that hosts nighttime musical performances.

Gardens are an ideal morning warm up for longer and more adventurous walks like Tiger Hill, a scenic area where visitors flock to see Suzhou’s seven-story “Leaning Tower of China,” and still more gardens. The climb is an easy but long one with plenty of stops like the Bonsai garden’s centuries-old trees, colorful koi ponds, and bridged pathways perched high above the trees. Bonsai pruning is a Chinese art form that requires an art degree, and visitors can witness pruners hard at work on Tiger Hill’s many potted varieties. The reward at the top is a 10th-century Buddhist temple that’s taller than Pisa’s leaning tower, and similarly began leaning thanks to softening ground, during the Ming Dynasty.

Where to Stay: Affordable hotel rates make an upgraded stay in Suzhou’s Old Town a must for the best access to (and views of) history: The Pan Pacific Suzhou Hotel shares grounds with the city’s famous Pan Men Gate and gardens, and admission to the historic landmark is included in your stay so you can explore the ponds and pagodas on early mornings before the inevitable crowds arrive. Upgrade to a Pan Pacific Club room for a luxe experience that still starts around $100 per night, and includes sweeping views of the Pan Men gardens’ towering pagodas, plus an upgraded breakfast buffet that’s rife with dumplings and Suzhou’s world-renowned fine teas.

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10 Crazy Las Vegas Tours Everyone Should Experience at Least Once

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You know about the celebrity chef restaurants, world-class residencies, and high-limit tables in Las Vegas. But there’s another side of Sin City just begging to be explored. On your next trip to this neon-draped desert city, check out these unique Las Vegas tours that’ll have you rethinking what a weekend in Vegas really means.

The Wine Yoga Experience

Center yourself with a winning combination of fire breathing and Cabernet. TheWine Yoga Experience lets you get your namaste on while sharing a glass of wine and a ton of fun with like-minded yogis. Glasses are typically outdoors, and your wine is served in a souvenir cup so you can pour yourself a refill back at home and relive the magic of your tipsy vacation shavasana all over again.

Las Vegas Hot Air Balloon Ride

See the more scenic side of Sin City with this Las Vegas tour in a hot-air balloon that takes you on a 3.5-hour trip over the painted mountains of Red Rock Canyon, the iconic Las Vegas Strip, and more. There’s even a picnic and Champagne toast, or you can sign up in the winter months to take off at sunset and get the full impact of the neon skyline.

Trapeze Lessons in Las Vegas

Fulfill your big-top dreams via a 90-minute trapeze lesson that brings you up close and personal with a unique peek at the zany activities offered in hidden Las Vegas. Instruction comes courtesy of a circus arts professional, and you’ll learn enough to attempt a fancy release-and-catch move before you go.

Downtown Las Vegas Food Tour

Las Vegas may be known for gambling, but it’s also home to some of the most delectable, diverse cuisine in the entire country. The unique 2.5-hour Las Vegas Food Tour includes edibles and beverages from some of the city’s most popular spots, as well as tidbits about Vegas architecture, culture, and history.

The Weird, Wacky and Wonderful Bar Crawl of Fremont Street

Bar hop the length of Fremont Street, a pedestrian thoroughfare that cuts through the heart of historic downtown Vegas. Weave between kiosks, take in the endless amounts of kitsch, look up for the art installations and light show, and try everything from scorpion tequila shots to craft beers along the way.
Cocktails? Check. Sky-high observation wheel? Check. Put them together and you’ve got happy hour on The High Roller, a sort of enclosed Ferris wheel with swanky air-conditioned pods, each equipped with a full bar. You get thirty minutes to make your loop-de-loop, with audio commentary so you know what you’re looking at, and plenty of frosty adult beverages, too.

Area 51 Extraterrestrial Tour

We are not alone—or at least that’s what this full-day, private tour of spooktastic Area 51 will have you thinking. Whether you’re into UFO sightings or hoping to stumble across a hidden treasure trove of evidence at this hush-hush military site, you’ll have a chance to find it during this exclusive, extraterrestrial-themed outing complete with an alien-themed lunch.

Las Vegas Reality Show VIP Tour

Sometimes it seems like Vegas is one giant reality show and we’re all on candid camera, but there are actual TV shows set in the Valley, too. This fully narrated Las Vegas tour takes ticket holders around filming locations used for shows likeUltimate Sports Cards and Memorabilia, Tanked, Pawns Stars, and American Restoration. You also get VIP access which allows you to skip the lines, a major bonus as some sites can get pretty congested.

Signature Smash Rage Room Experience

Rage against the machine (or just let your failings at the blackjack table loose somewhere safe) at Sin City Smash. You’ll have access to a huge array of breakables, ranging from dishes to printers to lamps. Once you put on your safety gear, you’ll get choose your weapons and enter the Rage Room for 15 minutes of no-holds-barred amusement. You even get to pick your own playlist, so your soundtrack matches your mood at this unique Las Vegas experience. Perhaps best of all, all the broken bits are cleaned up by staff who then take it to the recycling bin to ensure everyone’s fun is suitably eco-friendly.

Las Vegas Helicopter Night Flight

No matter how many times you’ve been to Vegas, the city is a different sight altogether once the sun sinks behind the mountains and the Strip lights up. This 15-minute flight delivers a unique bird’s-eye view of legendary landmarks such as the historic downtown area, the Bellagio fountains, and the Mirage. Sparkling wine and snacks are included, but you may be too busy gawking to fully appreciate your treats.

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6 Essential Tips for Solo Female Travel in the Middle East

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Solo female travel is more popular than ever. Women aren’t waiting around for someone to join them in their pursuit of adventure, they’re going on their own. It’s becoming increasingly easy to join an all-women tour group of like-minded people to explore complex destinations. But many women still opt to truly go it alone, to see what it’s like to see and do whatever you, and only you, want.

I didn’t think twice when I recently had the opportunity to spend some time solo in Amman before meeting up with a tour group to hike the rest of Jordan. But I was surprised at how many of my fellow female travelers were concerned to hear I’d be exploring a Middle Eastern locale alone.

Tips for Solo Female Travel in the Middle East

While every destination is, of course, different, I found out some surprising truths about taking on solo female travel during my time in Amman. And in comparing the journey to a subsequent trip to Cairo, during which I spent the majority of my time exploring with Egyptian friends, I discovered some general tips that tourists and locals seem to agree travelers should keep in mind.

Bring Your Awareness, But Also Your Self-Confidence

While it’s important to know that the Middle East is culturally different than other destinations when it comes to gender dynamics, it’s just as important to be yourself and have fun. Respect the culture by dressing the part (more on that below) and following social norms, but don’t spend the entire time worrying about a misstep. You’ll enjoy the ride more if you bring your sense of humor: having your guard up too high can at best result in missed opportunities and learning experiences, and at worst offend others. Many countries in the Middle East, Jordan and Egypt among them, are known for their generous hospitality and sense of humor—two things you don’t want to miss out on by shutting yourself off.

Take Note of Gendered Seating Sections

The biggest social norm I learned about in Amman is one I thankfully didn’t transgress despite my ignorance to it: gendered seating sections. Some restaurants have “family” sections, which are designated for any party that has women and/or children in it. There are different sections for men-only groups and solo men, and sitting in the opposite section (either as a man or as a woman) is a no-no; if you accidentally end up in the wrong section you’ll be asked to move. Restaurants that are popular with tourists typically don’t use these seating arrangements anymore, but if you get off the beaten path, it’s a good idea to survey the tables and wait for an employee to seat you, rather than pick a table yourself.
Public transit in some Middle Eastern cities like Cairo also employ gendered seating, for safety reasons. If you do decide to take public transit on your own, take note of which car you’re getting on. It’s worth noting that Uber and taxis are very affordable and still relied upon in most places in the Middle East—so you might not need to take public transit as a solo female traveler at all.

While some might think of solo female travel as a challenge, it’s actually a surprisingly underrated way to meet people—especially local women. When in doubt, a good rule is to seek out other women. Need directions? Ask a group of women. Taking public transit? Sit with or stand near other women.

In my experience, friendly local men seemed to be more likely to go out of their way to ask me if I needed directions, to suggest things to do, or just to chat about where I’d been. But I made sure to seek out women when I felt like I needed help, and I got a lot in return. For example, I asked a woman near me in line at Amman’s Roman amphitheater (pictured above) about the entry fee and, unprompted, she bought me my ticket to save me money. (Tourist rates are typically much higher than the locals’ ticket rates.) The gesture made me feel welcomed and comfortable at a time in my trip when I had been feeling vulnerable.

The best way to deal with moments of doubt or discouragement in solo female travel is to see if a local might be able to help. Some might even go out of their way to help you, as both women and men did for me in Amman.
Because it’s not common for women to be out and about on their own in many places in the Middle East, you’re likely to get more attention than you probably do in other destinations. Groups of schoolgirls in Jordan, for example, quickly became my biggest fans—asking for selfies and giddily practicing their English. But that attention can, of course, manifest in less welcome ways: Unwanted staring, photo-taking, comments, and other advances can happen. The best way to deal with such situations is to ignore them, or simply say “no” and move on. If that doesn’t work, or if someone seems to be following you, head to a place like a hotel lobby or a shop where an owner or employees are present. If anything more happens, seek out local tourist police, who can be found in most city centers and at most tourist attractions, and who take crimes and threats against tourists very seriously.

Dress the Part

An obvious way to avoid unwanted attention is to blend in. Dressing in Middle Eastern cities is different than in many other destinations, and what you pack should reflect that: Even when it’s extremely hot out, women are expected to cover up. The general rule is to wear modest clothing that will cover you from your neck to your knees, and to carry something like a pashmina for times when you need to cover up your shoulders or hair to enter sites like mosques—which are beautiful historic sites you won’t want to miss. Most mosques that are popular among tourists allow uncovered hair, but it’s a good idea to have a back-up scarf just in case you’re not as covered as you might need to be.

Keep in Mind a Simple Reality Check

To me, the incredulity about why I wanted to explore Amman alone was a symptom of a larger problem: People love to project other countries’ problems onto themselves, when in reality, it’s locals—not visitors—who are most often affected. Prejudice against women in Middle Eastern countries is largely not directed at tourists, but rather toward the women who live there. It’s often a privilege to be a visitor in the Middle East; most destinations cater to Western visitors because the region depends on tourism, which has greatly diminished for the Middle East in recent years. Of course, it’s always wise to be careful as a tourist in any destination, but it’s also important to remember that people sometimes overestimate the ways in which a problem will actually affect them as a visitor.
Visiting the Middle East as a solo female traveler is a unique learning experience that has both challenges and advantages. There was certainly some must-know advice I didn’t know before I went, but that I thankfully found out from locals before making any faux pas. But that’s the value of travel, and I look forward to exploring another Middle Eastern city on my own one day.

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